Epigenetics is commonly understood as a developmental and/or embryonic phenomenon in which the gene expression programs, the fate and tissue specificity of a cell is determined by another layer of control that transforms the fixed genetic code of every cell into different phenotypes. However, epigenetic phenomena in the brain are not restricted to the developmental period. As a matter of fact, the brain is designed to interact and adapt to its environment, and process physical, emotional and sensory inputs, thus requiring a capacity to reprogram and remodel itself across the lifetime. The connectivity of brain networks is constantly influenced by dynamic interactions with external stimuli that determine the architecture and plasticity of the brain. Therefore, epigenetics in the brain plays a significant role throughout the lifespan of postmitotic neurons and is an essential component of their physiology. Below, we discuss exceptional epigenetics in the brain.
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